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Semiconductor Constants

This section includes information on properities of silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and other semiconductors.
Energy Gap in III-V Ternary Semiconductors​

Gallium Arsenide

Properties of Si

Crystal Properties
Atomic weight28.086
Crystal StructureDiamond
Lattice Constant5.4310 A
Band Structure Properties
Dielectric Constant11.9
Eff. Density of States (conduction, Nc)2.8e19 cm-3
Eff. Density of States (valence, Nv)1.04e19 cm-3
Electron Affinity4.05
Minimum Indirect Energy Gap (300k)1.12 eV
Minimum Direct Energy Gap3.4 eV
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration1.45e10 cm-3
Intrinsic Debye Length24 um
Intrinsic Resistivity2.3e5 ohm-cm
Minority Carrier Lifetime2.5e-3 s
Mobility (Drift) (cm2/V-s)1500(Electron) 450(Hole)
Thermal Properties
Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion2.6e-6 (degC-1)
Melting Point1414 degC (estimated)
Boiling Point2878 degC
Specific Heat0.7 J/g - degC
Thermal Conductivity @ 300K1.5 W/cm-degC
Thermal Diffusivity0.99 cm2/s
Vapor Pressure (Pa)1@1650 degC 1e-6@900degC
Other Properties
Hardness1150 kg/mm2
Compressibility Coefficient1.0 cm2/dyne
Bulk Modulus9.8 dyne/cm2
Young's Modulus1.3 dyne/cm2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion2.33 /degC
dn/dT1.2 degC
Elastic Constant C111.656 dyne/cm2
Elastic Constant C120.639 dyne/cm2
Elastic Constant C440.795 dyne/cm2
Breaking Strength Compression4900-5600 Kg/cm2
Rupture Modulus Bending700-3500 Kg/cm2

Properties of Ge

Crystal StructureDiamond
Auger Recombination Coefficient10-30 cm6/s
Debye Temperature374 K
Density5.3234 g/cm3
Dielectric Constant16.2
Effective Electron Masses mI1.6 mo
Effective Electron Masses mt0.08 mo
Effective Hole Masses mh0.33 mo
Effective Hole Masses mlp0.043 mo
Electron Affinity4.0 eV
Lattice Constant5.659 A
Optical Phonon Energy0.037 eV
Breakdown Field105V cm-1
Mobility Electrons3900 cm2 V-1s-1
Mobility Holes1900 cm2 V-1s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Electrons100 cm2 s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Holes50 cm2 s-1
Electron Thermal Velocity3.1·105m s-1
Hole Thermal Velocity1.9·105m s-1
Infrared Refractive Index n4.00
Radiative Recombination Coefficient6.4·10-14 cm3/s
Bulk Modulus7.5·1011 dyn cm-2
Melting point937 deg C
Specific Heat0.31 J g-1 °C-1
Thermal Conductivity0.58 W cm-1 °C-1
Thermal Diffusivity0.36 cm2s-1
Thermal Expansion Linear5.9·10-6 °C -1
Density5.323 g cm-3
Cleavage Plane{ 001 }
Elastic Modulus C1112.60 x 10^11 dyn cm-2
Elastic Modulus C124.40 x 10^11 dyn cm-2
Elastic Modulus C446.77 x 10^11 dyn cm-2

Properties of GaAs

Crystal StructureZinc Blende
De Broglie Electron Wavelength240 A
Debye Temperature360 K
Density5.32 g cm-3
Dielectric Constant (Static)12.9
Dielectric Constant (High Frequency)10.89
Effective Electron Mass me0.063mo
Effective Hole Masses mh0.51mo
Effective Hole Masses mlp0.082 mo
Electron Affinity4.07 eV
Lattice Constant5.65325 A
Optical Phonon Energy0.035 eV
Energy Gap1.424 eV
Energy Separation (EΓL) Between Γ and L Valleys0.29 eV
Energy Separation (EΓX) Between Γ and X Valley0.48 eV
Energy Spin-orbital Splitting0.34 eV
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration2.1·106 cm-3
Intrinsic Resistivity3.3·108 Ω·cm
Effective Conduction Band Density of States4.7·1017 cm-3
Effective Valence Band Density of States9.0·10-18 cm-3
Breakdown Field≈4·105 V/cm
Mobility Electrons≤8500 cm2 V-1s-1
Mobility Holes≤400 cm2 V-1s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Electrons≤200 cm2/s
Diffusion Coefficient Holes≤10 cm2/s
Electron Thermal Velocity4.4·105 m/s
Hole Thermal Velocity1.8·105m/s
Infrared Refractive Index3.3
Radiative Recombination Coefficient7·10-10 cm3/s
Bulk Modulus7.53·1011 dyn cm-2
Melting Point1240 °C
Specific Heat0.33 J g-1°C -1
Thermal Conductivity0.55 W cm-1 °C -1
Thermal Diffusivity0.31cm2s-1
Thermal Expansion (Linear)5.73·10-6 °C -1
Density5.317 g cm-3
Cleavage Plane{ 110 }
Piezoelectric Constante14=-0.16 C m-2
C1111.90·1011 dyn/cm2
C125.34·1011 dyn/cm2
C445.96·1011 dyn/cm2

Properties of Select Binary Semiconductors

Direct Energy Gap (eV@300K)Γ15- Γ1


Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K)Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β)Eg2.522.2391.6872.3381.5190.8101.4210.4200.236
Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K)Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β)α (10-4eV/K)
Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K)Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β)β5884082133722049416275140
Indirect Energy GapΓ15- X12.452.141.632.2681.804



Temperature Dependence DirectdEd/dT-3.6-5.2-3.5-4.5-3.9-3.7-2.9-3.5-2.8
Temperature Dependence directdEind/dT---4.0---5.2-2.4---3.7----
Indirect Energy GapΓ15- L1--------



Lattice Constant5.4675.6606.1365.45125.65326.09595.86876.05836.4794
Density (gm cm-3)2.403.704.264.1385.31615.61374.815.6675.7747
Melting Point (K)2823201313381740151398513351215800
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 10-6/C (@300K)
Thermal Conductivity(W cm-1 K-1)
Refractive index n (near Eg)
Dielectric Constant Static ε(0)9.810.0612.0411.112.9115.6912.6115.1517.7
Dielectric Constant High f ε(∞)7.548.1610.249.0810.914.449.6115.2515.68
(1/n)*(dn/dT)*(K-1) x10-
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1)S111.0901.0701.6960.9731.1761.5821.6501.9452.443
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1)S12-0.350-0.320-0.562-0.298-0.365-0.495-0.594-0.685-0.863
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1)S441.6301.8402.4531.4191.6842.3142.1702.5253.311