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Semiconductor Constants

This section includes information on properities of silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and other semiconductors.
Energy Gap in III-V Ternary Semiconductors​

Silicon
Germanium
Gallium Arsenide
Other

Properties of Si

Crystal Properties
Atoms/cm3 5.0e22
Atomic weight 28.086
Crystal Structure Diamond
Density ~3e5
Lattice Constant 5.4310 A
Band Structure Properties
Dielectric Constant 11.9
Eff. Density of States (conduction, Nc) 2.8e19 cm-3
Eff. Density of States (valence, Nv) 1.04e19 cm-3
Electron Affinity 4.05
Minimum Indirect Energy Gap (300k) 1.12 eV
Minimum Direct Energy Gap 3.4 eV
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration 1.45e10 cm-3
Intrinsic Debye Length 24 um
Intrinsic Resistivity 2.3e5 ohm-cm
Minority Carrier Lifetime 2.5e-3 s
Mobility (Drift) (cm2/V-s) 1500(Electron) 450(Hole)
Thermal Properties
Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 2.6e-6 (degC-1)
Melting Point 1414 degC (estimated)
Boiling Point 2878 degC
Specific Heat 0.7 J/g - degC
Thermal Conductivity @ 300K 1.5 W/cm-degC
Thermal Diffusivity 0.99 cm2/s
Vapor Pressure (Pa) 1@1650 degC 1e-6@900degC
Other Properties
Hardness 1150 kg/mm2
Compressibility Coefficient 1.0 cm2/dyne
Bulk Modulus 9.8 dyne/cm2
Young's Modulus 1.3 dyne/cm2
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 2.33 /degC
dn/dT 1.2 degC
Elastic Constant C11 1.656 dyne/cm2
Elastic Constant C12 0.639 dyne/cm2
Elastic Constant C44 0.795 dyne/cm2
Breaking Strength Compression 4900-5600 Kg/cm2
Rupture Modulus Bending 700-3500 Kg/cm2

Properties of Ge

Crystal Structure Diamond
Auger Recombination Coefficient 10-30 cm6/s
Debye Temperature 374 K
Density 5.3234 g/cm3
Dielectric Constant 16.2
Effective Electron Masses mI 1.6 mo
Effective Electron Masses mt 0.08 mo
Effective Hole Masses mh 0.33 mo
Effective Hole Masses mlp 0.043 mo
Electron Affinity 4.0 eV
Lattice Constant 5.659 A
Optical Phonon Energy 0.037 eV
Breakdown Field 105V cm-1
Mobility Electrons 3900 cm2 V-1s-1
Mobility Holes 1900 cm2 V-1s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Electrons 100 cm2 s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Holes 50 cm2 s-1
Electron Thermal Velocity 3.1·105m s-1
Hole Thermal Velocity 1.9·105m s-1
Infrared Refractive Index n 4.00
Radiative Recombination Coefficient 6.4·10-14 cm3/s
Bulk Modulus 7.5·1011 dyn cm-2
Melting point 937 deg C
Specific Heat 0.31 J g-1 °C-1
Thermal Conductivity 0.58 W cm-1 °C-1
Thermal Diffusivity 0.36 cm2s-1
Thermal Expansion Linear 5.9·10-6 °C -1
Density 5.323 g cm-3
Cleavage Plane { 001 }
Elastic Modulus C11 12.60 x 10^11 dyn cm-2
Elastic Modulus C12 4.40 x 10^11 dyn cm-2
Elastic Modulus C44 6.77 x 10^11 dyn cm-2

Properties of GaAs

Crystal Structure Zinc Blende
De Broglie Electron Wavelength 240 A
Debye Temperature 360 K
Density 5.32 g cm-3
Dielectric Constant (Static) 12.9
Dielectric Constant (High Frequency) 10.89
Effective Electron Mass me 0.063mo
Effective Hole Masses mh 0.51mo
Effective Hole Masses mlp 0.082 mo
Electron Affinity 4.07 eV
Lattice Constant 5.65325 A
Optical Phonon Energy 0.035 eV
Energy Gap 1.424 eV
Energy Separation (EΓL) Between Γ and L Valleys 0.29 eV
Energy Separation (EΓX) Between Γ and X Valley 0.48 eV
Energy Spin-orbital Splitting 0.34 eV
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration 2.1·106 cm-3
Intrinsic Resistivity 3.3·108 Ω·cm
Effective Conduction Band Density of States 4.7·1017 cm-3
Effective Valence Band Density of States 9.0·10-18 cm-3
Breakdown Field ≈4·105 V/cm
Mobility Electrons ≤8500 cm2 V-1s-1
Mobility Holes ≤400 cm2 V-1s-1
Diffusion Coefficient Electrons ≤200 cm2/s
Diffusion Coefficient Holes ≤10 cm2/s
Electron Thermal Velocity 4.4·105 m/s
Hole Thermal Velocity 1.8·105m/s
Infrared Refractive Index 3.3
Radiative Recombination Coefficient 7·10-10 cm3/s
Bulk Modulus 7.53·1011 dyn cm-2
Melting Point 1240 °C
Specific Heat 0.33 J g-1°C -1
Thermal Conductivity 0.55 W cm-1 °C -1
Thermal Diffusivity 0.31cm2s-1
Thermal Expansion (Linear) 5.73·10-6 °C -1
Density 5.317 g cm-3
Cleavage Plane { 110 }
Piezoelectric Constant e14=-0.16 C m-2
C11 11.90·1011 dyn/cm2
C12 5.34·1011 dyn/cm2
C44 5.96·1011 dyn/cm2

Properties of Select Binary Semiconductors

Parameter AIP AIAs AsSb GaP GaAs GaSb InP InAs InSb
Direct Energy Gap (eV@300K) Γ15- Γ1

3.62

(77K)

3.14 2.22 2.78 1.424 0.70 1.34 0.356 0.180
Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K) Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β) Eg 2.52 2.239 1.687 2.338 1.519 0.810 1.421 0.420 0.236
Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K) Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β) α (10-4eV/K) 3.18 6.0 4.97 5.771 5.405 3.78 3.63 2.50 2.99
Direct Energy Gap (eV @0K) Eg = Ego - αT2/(T+β) β 588 408 213 372 204 94 162 75 140
Indirect Energy Gap Γ15- X1 2.45 2.14 1.63 2.268 1.804

1.25

(10K)

2.74 -- --
Temperature Dependence Direct dEd/dT -3.6 -5.2 -3.5 -4.5 -3.9 -3.7 -2.9 -3.5 -2.8
Temperature Dependence direct dEind/dT -- -4.0 -- -5.2 -2.4 -- -3.7 -- --
Indirect Energy Gap Γ15- L1 -- -- -- --

1.81

(110K)

0.81 1.74 -- --
Lattice Constant 5.467 5.660 6.136 5.4512 5.6532 6.0959 5.8687 6.0583 6.4794
Density (gm cm-3) 2.40 3.70 4.26 4.138 5.3161 5.6137 4.81 5.667 5.7747
Melting Point (K) 2823 2013 1338 1740 1513 985 1335 1215 800
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 10-6/C (@300K) 4.5 4.9 4.0 4.5 6.86 7.75 4.75 4.52 5.37
Thermal Conductivity (W cm-1 K-1) 0.9 0.8 0.57 0.77 0.46 0.39 0.68 0.273 0.166
Refractive index n (near Eg) 3.03 3.18 3.4 3.45 3.65 3.82 3.41 3.52 4.00
Dielectric Constant Static ε(0) 9.8 10.06 12.04 11.1 12.91 15.69 12.61 15.15 17.7
Dielectric Constant High f ε(∞) 7.54 8.16 10.24 9.08 10.9 14.44 9.61 15.25 15.68
(1/n)*(dn/dT)*(K-1) x10-5 3.5 4.6 3.5 2.5 4.5 8.2 2.7 6.5 0.12
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1) S11 1.090 1.070 1.696 0.973 1.176 1.582 1.650 1.945 2.443
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1) S12 -0.350 -0.320 -0.562 -0.298 -0.365 -0.495 -0.594 -0.685 -0.863
Elastic Compliances (1012cm2 dyne-1) S44 1.630 1.840 2.453 1.419 1.684 2.314 2.170 2.525 3.311