Thin Film Evaporation

Common Materials Reference and Guide

For more information on evaporation see this Metal Deposition page. Follow links to process details.

In the preparation of this guide, every effort has been made to insure accuracy, clarity and completeness. Unfortunately, in a work of this scope, errors are inevitable. Neither Edward Graper nor Lebow Corporation warrantees the accuracy of this information or the results of it's application. Use this information, at your own risk, as a general guide only. Use an independent check for important data. This guide may not be reproduced in any part without written from Lebow Corporation, which will generally be granted.
 

Copyright Lebow Corporation 1990, All Rights Reserved.

 

Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Aluminum Al 660 2.700 1.080 677 821 1010 eBeam (Xlnt), Thermal TiB2-BN, ZrB2, BN TiB2,W Alloys and wets. Fill Boat 2/3.
Aluminum
Antimonide
AlSb 1080 4.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Aluminum
Arsenide
AlAs 1600 3.7 -- -- -- ~1300 -- - -- --
Aluminum
Bromide
AlBr3 97 3.01 -- -- -- ~50 -- G Mo --
Aluminum
Carbide
Al4C3 1400 2.36 -- -- -- ~800 ebeam (Fair) -- -- n = 2.7
Aluminum
2% Copper
Al2%Cu 640 2.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources
Aluminum
Fluoride
AlF3 1257 3.07 -- 410 490 700 eBeam (Poor) G Mo, W n = 1.38 @ .55µ
sublimes ........sublimes........
Aluminum
Nitride
AlN -- 3.26 -- -- -- ~1750 ebeam (Fair) -- -- Decomposes. Reactive
evaporate in
10-3 N2 with glow discharge.
sublimes
Aluminum
Oxide (Alumina)
Al2O3 2045 3.970 0.336 -- -- 1550 eBeam (Xlnt), sputter -- W Sapphire xlnt in ebeam, forms smooth, hard films. n=1.66
Aluminum
2% Silicon
Al2%Si 640 2.6 -- -- -- 1010 -- TiB2-BN -- Wire feed and flash. Difficult from dual sources.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Antimony Sb 630 6.68 -- 279 345 425 eBeam (Poor) BN, C, Al2O3 Mo, Ta, Al2O3 Coated Toxic. Evaporates well. Film structure is rate-dependent.
........sublimes........
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 619 6.50 -- -- -- 600 -- C -- Decomposes over 750 ° C
Antimony Trioxide Sb2O3 656 5.2 or 5.76 -- -- -- ~300 eBeam (Good) BN, Al2O3 Pt Toxic. Decomposes on W. n = 2.05
........sublimes........
Antimony Triselenide Sb2Se3 611 -- -- -- -- -- -- C Ta Stoichiometry variable
Antimony Trisulphide Sb2S3 550 4.64 -- -- -- ~200 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 Mo, Ta n = 3.01 @.55µ No Decomposition.
Arsenic As 814 5.73 -- 107 150 210 eBeam (Poor) Al2O3, BeO, VC C Toxic. Sublimes rapidly at low temerature.
........sublimes........
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 360 4.75 -- -- -- -- -- Al2O3, Quartz -- n = 2.41 @3.8µ JVST 10, 748(1973)
Arsenic Trisulphide As2S3 300 3.43 -- -- -- ~400 ebeam (Fair) Al2O3, Quartz Mo n = 2.8 JVST 10, 748(1973)
Arsenic Tritelluride As2Te3 362 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Flash JVST 10, 748(1975)
Barium Ba 710 3.78 -- 545 627 735 eBeam (Fair) Metals W, Ta, Mo Wets w/o alloying - reacts with ceramics.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Barium Chloride BaCl2 962 3.86 -- -- -- ~650 -- -- Ta, Mo use general preheat to outgas.
Barium Fluoride BaF2 1280 4.83 -- -- -- ~700 eBeam (Good) -- Mo n = 1.29 @5µ JVST 21, 2052 (1982) Density Rate Dependent
........sublimes........
Barium Oxide BaO 1923 5.72 or 5.32 -- -- -- ~1300 ebeam (Poor) Al2O3 Pt Decomposes slightly. n = 1.98
Barium Sulphide BaS 2200 4.25 -- -- -- 1100 -- -- Mo n = 2.16
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 Decomposes 6.0 -- ........Decomposes........ -- -- -- Decomposes, yields free Ba from single source; sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources
Beryllium Be 1278 1.85 -- 710 878 1000 eBeam (Xlnt) BeO, C, Vit. Carbon W, Ta Wets W/Mo/Ta. Metal powder and oxides are toxic. Evaporates easily.
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 440 1.90 -- -- -- ~150 -- -- -- --
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 1.99 -- -- -- ~200 eBeam (Good) -- -- Toxic.
........sublimes........
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2530 3.01 -- -- -- 1900 ebeam (Good) -- -- Powders toxic. No decomposition from EB guns. n = 1.72
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Bismuth Bi 271 9.80 -- 330 410 520 eBeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, VC W, Mo, Al2O3, Ta Vapors are toxic. High resistivity. No shorting of baskets.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 8.75 -- -- -- ~300 -- G -- n = 1.74 @ 1µ, 1.64 @ 10µ App. Opt. 18, 105 (1979)
........sublimes........
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 820 8.9 -- -- -- ~1400 ebeam (Poor) -- Pt Vapors are toxic. n = 2.55. JVST 12, 63 (1975)
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 710 7.66 -- -- -- ~650 ebeam (Good) G, Quartz -- Sputtering preferred; co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 585 7.85 -- -- -- ~600 -- G, Quartz W, Mo Sputtering preferred; co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 -- -- -- ........Decomposes........ -- -- -- Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources in 10-2O2.
Bismuth Trisulphide Bi2S3 685 7.39 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- n = 1.5
Boron B 2100 2.36 0.389 1278 1548 1797 eBeam (Xlnt), sputter C, VC C Material explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
........sublimes........
Boron Carbide B4C 2350 2.50 -- 2500 2580 2650 ebeam (xlnt) -- -- similar to Chromium.
Boron Nitride BN 2300 2.20 -- -- -- ~1600 eBeam (Poor) -- -- Sputtering preferred; Decomposes.
........sublimes........
Boron Oxide B2O3 460 1.82 -- -- -- ~1400 ebeam (Good) -- Pt, Mo n = 1.46
Boron Trisulphide B2S3 310 1.55 -- -- -- 800 -- G -- --
Cadmium Cd 321 8.64 -- 64 120 180 ebeam (Poor) Al2O3, Quartz W, Cb, Mo, Ta Poisons vacuum systems, low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide CdSb 456 6.92 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 721 6.21 -- -- -- -- -- Quartz -- --
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567 5.19 -- -- -- ~300 -- -- -- --
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 570 4.05 -- -- -- ~400 -- -- -- --
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1070 6.64 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- -- n = 1.56
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 400 5.30 -- -- -- ~250 -- -- -- --
Cadmium Oxide CdO 900 6.95 -- -- -- ~530 -- -- -- Disproportionates. n = 2.49
Cadmium Selenide CdSe 1264 5.81 -- -- -- 540 eBeam (Good) Al2O3, Quartz Mo, Ta Evaporates easily. n = 2.4 @.6µ
........sublimes........
Cadmium Siliside CdSiO2 -- -- -- -- -- ~600 -- -- -- Disproportionates. n = 1.69
Cadmium Sulphide CdS 1750 4.82 -- -- -- 550 eBeam (Fair) Al2O3, Quartz W, Mo, Ta Sticking Coefficient strongly affected by substrate temperature. Stoichiometry variable. n = 2.4. JVST 12, 188(1975)
........sublimes........
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1098 6.20 -- -- -- 450 -- -- W, Mo, Ta Stoichiometry depends in substrate temperature. n = 2.6.
Calcium Ca 842 1.55 -- 272 357 459 eBeam (Poor) Al2O3, Quartz W Corrodes in air.
........sublimes........
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 1360 3.18 -- -- -- ~1100 ebeam (Xlnt) Quartz W, Mo, Ta Rate control important. Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.2-1.4
Calcium Oxide CaO 2580 3.35 -- -- -- ~1700 -- ZrO2 W, Mo Forms volatile oxides with W and Mo. n = 1.84.
Calcium Silicate CaO - SiO2 1540 2.90 -- -- -- -- ebeam(Good) Quartz -- n = 1.61
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Calcium Sulphide CaS -- 2.18 -- -- -- 1100 -- -- Mo Decomposes. n = 2.14
sublimes
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 1975 4.10 -- 1490 1600 1690 ebeam (Poor) -- -- Disproportionates except in sputtering.
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 1620 6.06 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- W n = 1.92
Carbon
(diamond)
C -- 1.8-2.3 0.220 1657 1867 2137 eBeam (Xlnt), sputter -- -- EB preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion. Sublimes. Vitreous carbon n = 1.47
sublimes ........sublimes........
Cerium Ce 795 8.23 -- 970 1150 1380 ebeam (Good) Al2O3, BeO, VC W, Ta Films oxidize easily.
Ceric Oxide CeO2 2600 7.3 -- 1890 2000 2310 eBeam (Good) -- W Use 250-300° C substrate temperature. n = 2.2 - 2.4. Reacts with W.
........sublimes........
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1418 6.16 -- -- -- ~900 ebeam (Good) -- W, Mo, Ta Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.63@ .55µ
Cerium Oxide Ce2O3 1692 6.87 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Fair) -- W Alloys with source; use .015-.020 W boat. n = 1.95
Cesium Cs 28 1.87 -- -16 +22 +30 -- Quartz S.S. --
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636 4.44 -- -- -- ~400 -- -- W n = 1.70
Cesium Chloride CsCl 646 3.97 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- W n = 1.64 Hygroscopic
Cesium Fluoride CsF 684 3.59 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- W --
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272 3.67 -- -- -- 550 -- -- Pt --
Cesium Iodide CsI 621 4.51 -- -- -- ~500 -- Pt, Quartz W, Pt n = 1.79
Chiolote Na5Al3F14 -- 2.9 -- -- -- ~800 -- -- Mo, W n = 1.33
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Chromium Cr 1890 7.200 0.305 837 977 1157 eBeam (Good), Thermal VC W, Cr rod or strip Films very adherent. High rates possible.
........sublimes........
Chromium Boride CrB 2760 6.17 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Chromium Bromide CrBr2 842 4.36 -- -- -- 550 -- -- Inconel --
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1890 6.68 -- -- -- ~2000 ebeam (Fair) -- W --
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824 2.75 -- -- -- 550 -- -- Fe, Inconel Sublimes easily.
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2435 5.21 -- -- -- ~2000 ebeam (Good) -- W, Mo Disproportionates to lower oxides, reoxidizes @600° C in air. n = 2.4
Chromium Silicide Cr3Si 1710 6.51 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Chromium Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO .......Influenced by Composition....... ebeam (Good) -- W Flash
Cobalt Co 1495 8.90 -- 850 990 1200 eBeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, BeO W, Cb Alloys with refractory metals.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 4.91 -- -- -- 400 -- -- Inconel --
........sublimes........
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 740 3.36 -- -- -- 472 -- -- Inconel --
........sublimes........
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1935 5.68 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Sputtering preferred.
Copper Cu 1083 8.920 0.437 727 857 1017 eBeam (Xlnt),
Thermal 
Al2O3, Mo, Ta W, Mo Films do not adhere well. Use intermediate layer, e.g. Chromium. Evaporates from any source material.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Copper Chloride CuCl 422 3.53 -- -- -- ~600 -- -- -- n = 1.93
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1235 6.0 -- -- -- ~600 eBeam (Good), Thermal Al2O3 Ta Evaporate in 10-2-10-4 of O2; n = 2.70.
J. Electrochem. Soc. 110, 119(1967)
........sublimes........
Copper Sulfide CuS 1113 6.75 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- -- n = 1.45
........sublimes........
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1000 2.9 -- 1020 1260 1480 eBeam (Xlnt) VC W, Mo, Ta Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition. n = 2.34 at 6330A App. Opt. 15, 1969(1976)
Dysprosium Dy 1409 8.54 -- 625 750 900 ebeam (Good) -- Ta --
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1360 6.0 -- -- -- ~800 eBeam (Good) -- Ta --
........sublimes........
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2340 7.81 -- -- -- ~1400 -- -- Ir Loses Oxygen.
Erbium Er 1497 9.060 0.740 650 775 930 eBeam (good), Thermal -- W,Ta Sublimes
........sublimes........
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1350 7.81 -- -- -- ~750 -- -- Mo JVST A3 (6) 2320
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 2400 8.64 -- -- -- ~1600 -- -- Ir Loses Oxygen.
Europium Eu 822 5.26 -- 280 360 480 eBeam (Fair) Al2O3 W,Ta Low Tantalum solubility.
........sublimes........
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1380 6.5 -- -- -- ~950 -- -- Mo --
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 2056 7.42 -- -- -- ~1600 ebeam (Good) ThO2 Ir, Ta, W Loses Oxygen; films clear and hard.
Europium Sulphide EuS -- 5.75 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- --
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Gadolinium Gd 1312 7.89 -- 760 900 1175 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 Ta High Ta solubility.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2310 7.41 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Fair) -- Ir Loses Oxygen; n = 1.8 @ .55µ
Gallium Ga 30 5.90 -- 619 742 907 ebeam (Good) Al2O3, BeO, Quartz -- Alloys with refractory metals. Use EB gun.
Gallium Atimonide GaSb 710 5.6 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Fair) -- W, Ta Flash Evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1238 5.3 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) Carbon W, Ta Flash Evaporate. n = 5.64 @ 10.6µ
Gallium Nitride GaN -- 6.1 -- -- -- ~200 Al2O3 -- -- Evaporate Ga in 10-3 N2.
sublimes
Gallium Oxide (β) Ga2O3 1900 5.88 -- -- -- -- -- -- Pr, W Loses Oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1540 4.1 -- -- 770 920 -- Quartz W, Ta Decomposes vapor mostly P.
Germanium Ge 937 5.350 0.516 812 957 1167 eBeam (Xlnt) Al2O3,
Quartz
W, C, Ta Excellent films from EB sources. Use .040 W. n = 4.01
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 5.2 -- -- -- ~650 -- -- -- Sputtering preferred.
........sublimes........
Germanium Oxide GeO2 1086 6.24 -- -- -- ~625 ebeam(Good) Quartz, Al2O3 Ta, Mo Similar to SiO, film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725 6.20 -- -- -- 381 -- Quartz, Al2O3 W, Mo --
Glass Schott 8329 -- -- 2.20 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Xlnt) -- -- Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating. n = 1.47.
Gold Au 1062 19.320 0.381 807 947 1132 eBeam (Xlnt), Thermal BN, Al2O3, VC W, Mo, Al2O3 May not adhere well. Films soft.
Hafnium Hf 2230 13.09 -- 2160 2250 3090 eBeam (Good) -- -- --
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3250 10.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Hafnium Carbide HfC 4160 12.2 -- -- -- ~2600 -- -- -- --
........sublimes........
Hafnium Nitride HfN 2852 13.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2812 9.68 -- -- -- ~2500 ebeam (Fair) -- W Film HfO n = 2.0 @ .5µ App. Opt. Apr. 1977
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1750 7.2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Holmium Ho 1470 8.80 -- 650 770 950 ebeam (Good) -- W, Ta --
........sublimes........
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1143 7.64 -- -- -- ~800 -- Quartz -- --
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2370 8.41 -- -- -- -- -- -- Ir Loses Oxygen.
Inconel Ni/Cr/Fe 1425 8.5 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- W Use fine wire pre-wrapped on W. Low rate req'd. for smooth films.
Indium In 157 7.30 0.841 487 597 742 eBeam (Xlnt) G, Al2O3,
Mo liner
W, Mo Wets W and Cu. use Mo liner in gun.
Indium Antimonide InSb 535 5.8 -- 500 -- ~400 -- -- W Toxic. Decomposes; sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash. n = 4.3 @ 1µ
Indium Arsenide InAs 943 5.7 -- 780 870 970 -- -- W Toxic. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash. n = 4.5 @ 1µ
Indium Oxide In2O3 1565 7.18 -- -- -- ~1200 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 W, Pt Film In2O; transparent conductor. JVST 12, 99(1975)
........sublimes........
Indium Phosphide InP 1058 4.8 -- -- 630 730 -- G W, Ta Deposits P. rich. Flash evaporate.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890 5.7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Indium Sesquisulphide In2S3 1050 4.90 -- -- -- 850 -- G -- Film In2S
........sublimes........
Indium Sulphide In2S 653 5.87 -- -- -- 650 -- G -- --
Indium Telluride In2Te3 667 5.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3-SnO2 1800 6.43-7.14 -- -- -- -- eBeam (good) G W, Mo Sublimes. 90 In203:10 Sn02 wt%.
anneal req. for transparancy and improved conductivity.
Iridium Ir 2459 22.65 -- 1850 2080 2380 ebeam (Fair) ThO2 -- --
Iron Fe 1535 7.860 0.349 858 998 1180 eBeam (Xlnt) BeO, Al2O3 W Attacks Tungsten. Use gentle preheat to outgas. Films hard, smooth.
Iron Bromide FeBr2 689 4.64 -- -- -- 561 -- Fe -- --
Iron Chloride FeCl2 670 2.98 -- -- -- 300 -- Fe -- --
........sublimes........
Iron Iodide FeI2 592 5.31 -- -- -- 400 -- Fe -- --
Iron Oxide FeO 1425 5.7 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Poor) -- -- Decomposes; sputtering preferred.
Iron Oxide Fe2O3 1565 5.24 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- W Disproportionates at Fe3O4 at 1530° C, n = 3.0
Iron Sulphide FeS 1195 4.84 -- -- -- -- -- Al2O3 -- Decomposes.
Kanthal FeCrAl 1500 7.1 -- -- -- ~1150 -- -- W JVST 7, 739(1980)
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Lanthanum La 920 6.17 -- 990 1212 1388 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 W, Ta Films will burn in air if Scraped.
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2210 2.61 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- --
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 783 5.06 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- n = 1.94 Hygroscopic
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 1490 6.0 -- -- -- 900 ebeam (Good) -- Ta, Mo No Decomposition. n = 1.59 @ .55µ
........sublimes........
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 2250 5.84 -- -- -- 1400 ebeam (Good) -- W, Ta Loses oxygen. n = 1.9 @ .5µ
Lead Pb 328 11.34 1.130 342 427 497 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Quartz, Al2O3 W, Mo Toxic. Carefully controlled rates req'd. for superconductors.
Lead Bromide PbBr2 373 6.66 -- -- -- ~300 -- -- -- --
Lead Chloride PbCl2 501 5.85 -- -- -- ~325 -- Al2O3 Pt Little decomposition. n = 2.2
Lead Fluoride PbF2 822 8.24 -- -- -- ~400 -- BeO W, Pt, Mo Toxic. n = 1.75 @ .3µ
........sublimes........
Lead Iodide PbI2 502 6.16 -- -- -- ~500 -- Quartz Pt n = 2.7 J.Opt. Soci. 65, 914
Lead Oxide PbO 890 9.53 -- -- -- ~550 -- Quartz, Al2O3 Pt No Decomposition. n = 2.55
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 1115 8.1 -- 670 780 905 ebeam (Poor) Al2O3 Pt Disproportionates.
Lead Selenide PbSe 1065 8.10 -- -- -- ~500 -- G, Al2O3 W, Mo --
........sublimes........
Lead Sulphide PbS 1114 7.5 -- -- -- 550 -- Quartz, Al2O3 W Little Decomposition. n = 3.91
........sublimes........
Lead Telluride PbTe 917 8.16 -- 780 910 1050 -- G, Al2O3 Mo, Pt, Ta Vapors toxic. Deposits Te rich. Sputtering preferred, or co-evaporate from sources. n = 5.6 @ 5µ
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 -- 7.52 -- -- -- -- -- -- Ta --
Lithium Li 179 0.53 -- 227 307 407 ebeam (Good) BeO, Al2O3 Ta, S.S. Metal reacts violently in air.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Lithium Bromide LiBr 547 3.46 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- Ni n = 1.78
Lithium Chloride LiCl 613 2.07 -- -- -- 400 -- -- Ni Use gentle preheat for outgas. n = 1.66
Lithium Fluoride LiF 870 2.60 -- 875 1020 1180 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 Ni, Ta, Mo, W Rate control important for optical films. Use gentle preheat for outgas. n = 1.36. J. Appl. Opt. 11, 2245(1972)
Lithium Iodide LiI 446 4.06 -- -- -- 400 -- -- Mo, W --
Lithium Oxide Li2O 1427 2.01 -- -- -- 850 -- -- Pt, Ir n = 1.64
Lutetium Lu 1652 9.84 -- -- -- 1300 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 Ta --
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 2489 9.41 -- -- -- 1400 -- -- Ir Decomposes.
Magnesium Mg 651 1.74 -- 185 247 327 ebeam (Good) VC, Al2O3 W, Mo, Ta, Cb Extremely hich rates possible.
........sublimes........
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 2135 3.6 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- Natural spinel.
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 700 3.72 -- -- -- ~450 -- -- Ni Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 708 2.32 -- -- -- 400 -- -- Ni Decomposes. n = 1.6
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1266 2.9-3.2 -- -- -- 1000 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 Mo, Ta Rate control and substrate heat important for optical films. n = 1.38 J. Appl. Opt. 11, 2245(1972)
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 700 4.24 -- -- -- 200 -- -- Ir --
Magnesium Oxide MgO 2800 3.58 -- -- -- 1300 ebeam (Good) C, Al2O3 -- W produces volatile oxides. n = 1.7 J. Appl. Opt.11, 2243 (1972)
Manganese Mn 1244 7.20 -- 507 572 647 ebeam (Good) BeO, Al2O3 W, Mo, Ta --
........sublimes........
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 695 4.38 -- -- -- 500 -- -- Inconel --
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 650 2.98 -- -- -- 450 -- -- Inconel --
Manganese Oxide Mn3O4 1705 4.86 -- -- -- -- -- -- W --
Manganese Sulphide MnS 1615 3.99 -- -- -- 1300 -- -- Mo Decomposes. n = 2.7
Mercury Hg -39 13.55 -- -68 -42 -6 -- -- -- --
Mercury Sulphide HgS -- 8.10 -- -- -- 250 -- Al2O3 -- Decomposes.
sublimes ........sublimes........
Molybdenum Mo 2610 10.22 -- 1592 1822 2117 ebeam (Xlnt) -- -- Films smooth, hard. Careful degas req'd.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 2100 7.12 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Poor) -- -- --
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 2687 9.18 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Fair) -- -- Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yeilds Mo2C
Molybdenum Disulphide MoS2 1185 4.80 -- -- -- ~50 -- -- -- --
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 2050 6.3 -- -- -- ~50 -- -- W Decomposes.
Molybdenum Trioxide MoO3 795 4.70 -- -- -- ~900 -- Al2O3, BN Mo, Pt Slight O2 loss. n = 1.9
Neodymium Nd 1024 7.00 -- 731 871 1062 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 Ta Low Ta solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 1410 6.5 -- -- -- ~900 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 Mo, W Very little decomposition. n = 1.61 @.55µ
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 2272 7.24 -- -- -- ~1400 ebeam (Good) ThO2 Ta, W Loses oxygen, films clear, EB preferred. Hygroscopic n = 1.79 n varies with substrate temp.
Nichrome IV Ni/Cr 1395 8.50 0.3258 847 987 1217 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, VC, BeO W, Al2O3 coated Alloys with refractory metals.
Nickel Ni 1453 8.910 0.331 927 1072 1262 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Al2O3, BeO, CG W Alloys with refractory metals. Forms smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 963 4.64 -- -- -- 362 -- -- Inconel --
........sublimes........
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 1001 3.55 -- -- -- 444 -- -- Inconel --
........sublimes........
Nickel Oxide NiO 1990 7.45 -- -- -- ~1470 -- Al2O3 -- Dissociates upon heating n = 2.18
Niobium
(Columbium)
Nb 2468 8.55 -- 1728 1977 2287 ebeam (Xlnt) -- W Attacks W source.
Niobium Boride NbB2 3050 6.97 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Niobium Carbide NbC 3800 7.82 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Fair) -- -- --
Niobium Nitride NbN 2573 8.4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Reactive, evaporate Nb in 10-3 N2.
Niobium Oxide NbO -- 6.27 -- -- -- 1100 -- -- Pt --
Niobium Pentoxide Nb2O5 1530 4.47 -- -- -- -- -- -- W n = 2.3
Niobium Telluride NbTex -- 7.6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn -- -- -- -- -- -- ebeam (Xlnt) -- -- Co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Niobium Trioxide Nb2O3 1780 7.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- W --
Osmium Os 1700 22.5 -- 2170 2430 2760 ebeam (Fair) -- -- --
Palladium Pd 1550 12.40 -- 842 992 1192 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, BeO W Alloys with refractory metals; rapid evaporation suggested. Spits in EB.
Palladium Oxide PdO 870 8.31 -- -- -- 575 -- Al2O3 -- Decomposes.
Parylene (Union Carbide) C8H8 300-400 1.1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vapor depositable plastic.
Permalloy Ni/Fe 1395 8.7 -- 947 1047 1307 ebeam (Good) Al2O3, VC W Film low in Ni content. Use 84% Ni source. JVST Vol. 7, No. 6, p. 573
Phosphorus P 41.4 1.82 -- 327 361 402 -- Al2O3 -- Metal reacts violently in air.
Platinum Pt 1769 21.45 0.245 1292 1492 1747 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal CG, ThO2 W Alloys with metals; poor adhesion; films soft
Plutonium Pu 635 19 -- -- -- -- -- -- W Toxic, radioactive
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Polonium Po 254 9.4 -- 117 170 244 -- Quartz -- Radioactive
Potassium K 64 .86 -- 23 60 125 -- Quartz Mo Metal reacts violently in air. Use gentle preheat to outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 730 2.75 -- -- -- ~450 -- Quartz Mo, Ta Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.56
Potassium Chloride KCl 776 1.98 -- -- -- 510 ebeam (Good) -- Ta, Ni Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.49
Potassium Fluoride KF 880 2.48 -- -- -- ~500 ebeam (Poor) Quartz -- Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.35
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 360 2.04 -- -- -- ~400 -- -- Pt Use gentle preheat to outgas.
Potassium Iodide KI 72 3.13 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- Ta Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.68
Praseodymium Pr 931 6.78 -- 800 950 1150 ebeam (Good) -- Ta --
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 2125 6.88 -- -- -- 1400 ebeam (Good) ThO2 Ir Loses oxygen. n = 2.0
Radium Ra 700 5.0 -- 246 320 416 -- -- -- --
Rhenium Re 3180 20.53 -- 1928 2207 2571 ebeam (Poor) -- -- Fine wire will self-evaporate.
Rhenium Oxide Re2O7 297 8.2 -- -- -- ~100 -- -- -- --
Rhodium Rh 1966 12.41 -- 1277 1472 1707 ebeam (Good) ThO2, VC W EB gun preferred.
Rubidium Rb 38.5 1.47 -- -3 37 111 -- Quartz -- --
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 715 2.76 -- -- -- ~550 -- Quartz -- n = 1.49
Rubidium Iodide RbI 642 3.55 -- -- -- ~400 -- Quartz -- --
Ruthenium Ru 2700 12.45 -- 1780 1990 2260 ebeam (Poor) ThO2, VC -- Splits violently in EB. Requires degas.
Samarium Sm 1072 7.54 -- 373 460 573 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 Ta --
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 2350 7.43 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) ThO2 Ir Loses O2. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulphide Sm2S3 1900 5.72 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- AIP conf. Proc. on Mag. & Mag. Mat. B, 5, 860 (1971)
Scandium Sc 1539 2.99 -- 714 837 1002 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, BeO W Alloys with Ta
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 2300 3.86 -- -- -- ~400 ebeam (Fair) -- -- Loses Oxygen. n = 1.88 @ .5µ
Selenium Se 217 4.79 -- 89 125 170 ebeam (Good) Al2O3, VC W, Mo Toxic. Poisons vacuum systems. JVST 9, 387 (1972); 12, 573 & 807 (1975)
Silicon Si 1410 2.42 0.712 992 1147 1337 eBeam (Fair), sputter BeO, Ta, VC W, Ta Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced above 4x10-6 Torr. EB best. n = 3.42 App. Opt. 15, 2348 (1976)
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Silicon Boride SiB6 -- 2.47 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Poor) -- -- --
Silicon Carbide SiC 2700 3.22 -- -- -- 1000 -- -- -- Sputtering preferred.
Silicon Dioxide SiO2 1610-1710 2.2-2.7 1.000 -- -- ~1025 eBeam (Xlnt), sputter Al2O3 -- Quartz excellent in EB. n = 1.47
Influenced by composition
Silicon Monoxide SiO 1702 2.1 -- -- -- 850 eBeam (Fair) Ta W, Ta Baffle box source best for resistance evaporation. Low rate suggested. n = 1.6.
........sublimes........
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 -- 3.44 -- -- -- ~800 eBeam, sputter -- -- n = 2.1
sublimes
Silicon Selenide SiSe -- -- -- -- -- 550 -- Quartz -- --
Silicon Sulphide SiS -- 1.85 -- -- -- 450 -- Quartz -- --
sublimes
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 -- 4.39 -- -- -- 550 -- Quartz -- --
Silver Ag 961 10.49 0.529 847 958 1105 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Al2O3, Mo Mo, Ta Evaporates well from any source.
Silver Bromide AgBr 432 6.47 -- -- -- ~380 -- Quartz Ta n = 2.25
Silver Chloride AgCl 455 5.56 -- -- -- ~520 -- Quartz Mo, Pt n = 2.07
Silver Iodide AgI 558 5.67 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- Ta n = 2.21
Silver Iodide AgI 558 5.67 -- -- -- ~500 -- -- Ta n = 2.21
Sodium Na 97 .97 -- 74 124 192 -- Quartz Ta, S.S. Use gentle preheat to outgas. Metal reacts violently in air.
Sodium Bromide NaBr 755 3.20 -- -- -- ~400 -- Quartz -- Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.64
Sodium Chloride NaCl 801 2.16 -- -- -- 530 ebeam (Good) Quartz Ta, Mo, W Cu ovens, little decomposition. Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.54
Sodium Cyanide NaCN 563 -- -- -- -- ~550 -- -- Ag Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.45
Sodium Fluoride NaF 988 2.79 -- -- -- ~700 ebeam (Good) BeO Mo, Ta, W Use gentle preheat to outgas. No decomposition n = 1.30 @ .55µ
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 318 2.13 -- -- -- ~470 -- -- Pt Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 1.36
Spinel MgO3
5Al2O3
-- 8.0 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- n = 1.72
Strontium Sr 769 2.6 -- 239 309 403 ebeam (Poor) VC W, Ta, Mo Wets but does not alloy with refractory metals. May react violently in air.
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 1190 4.24 -- -- -- ~1000 -- Al2O3 -- n = 1.44
Strontium Oxide SrO 2460 4.7 -- -- -- 1500 -- Al2O3 Mo Reacts with Mo, and W; n = 1.87
........sublimes........
Strontium Sulphide SrS Above
2000
3.70 -- -- -- -- -- -- Mo Decomposes. n = 2.11
Sulphur S8 115 2.0 -- 13 19 57 ebeam (Poor) Quartz W Poisons vacuum system.
Supermalloy Ni/Fe/Mo 1410 8.9 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- Sputtering preferred; co-evaporate from 2 sources, Permalloy and Mo.
Tantalum Ta 2996 16.6 -- 1960 2240 2590 ebeam (Xlnt) -- -- Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride TaB2 3000 12.38 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Tantalum Carbide TaC 3880 14.65 -- -- -- ~2500 -- -- -- JVST 12, 811 (1975)
Tantalum Nitride TaN 3360 16.30 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Reactive; evaporate Ta in 10-3N2.
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 1800 8.74 -- 1550 1780 1920 ebeam (Good) VC W, Ta Slight decomposition; evaporate in 10-3 Torr of O2. n = 2.0 @ 1.5µ App. Opt. 19, 1737 (1980)
Tantalum Sulphide TaS2 1300 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Technetium Tc 2200 11.5 -- 1570 1800 2090 -- -- -- --
Teflon PTFE 330 2.9 -- -- -- -- -- -- W Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Tellurium Te 452 6.25 -- 157 207 277 ebeam (Poor) Al2O3, Quartz W, Ta Wets without alloying. Toxic.
Terbium Tb 1357 8.27 -- 800 950 1150 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 Ta --
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 1176 -- -- -- -- ~800 -- -- -- --
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 2387 7.87 -- -- -- 1300 -- -- Ir Partially decomposes.
Terbium Oxide Tb4O7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Ta Films TbO.
Thallium Tl 302 11.85 -- 280 360 470 ebeam (Poor) Al2O3, Quartz W, Ta Wets freely, very Toxic.
 
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
Thallium Bromide TlBr 480 7.56 -- -- -- ~250 -- Quartz Ta Toxic n = 2.3
........sublimes........
Thallium Chloride TlCl 430 7.00 -- -- -- ~150 -- Quartz Ta Toxic n = 2.25
........sublimes........
Thallium
Iodide (B)
TlI 440 7.09 -- -- -- ~250 -- Quartz -- Toxic n = 2.78
........sublimes........
Thallium Oxide Tl2O3 717 9.65 -- -- -- 350 -- -- -- Toxic, Goes to Tl2O @ 850° C.
Thorium Th 1875 11.7 -- 1430 1660 1925 ebeam (Xlnt) W W, Ta, Mo Toxic, radioactive.
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 -- 5.67 -- -- -- -- -- -- Mo Toxic n = 2.47 @ 5µ
........sublimes........
Thorium Carbide ThC2 2773 8.96 -- -- -- ~2300 -- Carbon -- Radioactive.
Thorium Dioxide ThO2 3050 10.03 -- -- -- ~2100 ebeam (Good) -- -- Radioactive. n = 1.86 @ 2.2µ
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 1110 6.3 -- -- -- ~750 ebeam (Fair) VC Mo Radioactive. n = 1.52 Heat substrate to above 150° C. JVST 12, 919, (1975)
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 900 9.1 -- -- -- -- -- -- Mo, Ta Radioactive. n = 1.52
Thorium Sulphide ThS2 -- 6.80 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Sputtering preferred; co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Thulium Tm 1545 9.32 -- 461 554 680 ebeam (Good) Al2O3 Ta --
........sublimes........
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 -- 8.90 -- -- -- 1500 -- -- Ir Decomposes.
Tin Sn 232 7.75 0.724 682 807 997 eBeam (Xlnt), Thermal Al2O3, Ta Mo Wets Mo; use Ta liner in EB guns.
Tin Oxide SnO2 1127 6.95 -- -- -- ~1000 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3, Quartz W Films from W oxygen deficient, oxidize in air. n = 2.0
........sublimes........
Tin Selenide SnSe 861 6.18 -- -- -- ~400 ebeam (Good) Quartz -- JVST 12, 110 (1975)
Tin Sulphide SnS 882 5.08 -- -- -- ~450 -- Quartz -- --
Tin Telluride SnTe 780 6.44 -- -- -- ~450 -- Quartz -- --
Titanium Ti 1675 4.50 0.628 1067 1235 1453 eBeam (Xlnt), Thermal TiC W Alloys with refractory metals. Evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium Boride TiB2 2980 4.50 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Poor) -- -- --
Titanium Carbide TiC 3140 4.93 -- -- -- ~2300 -- -- -- JVST 12, 851, (1975)
Titanium Dioxide (rutile) TiO2 1640 4.29 -- -- -- ~1300 ebeam (Fair) -- W, Mo Evaporate in 10-4 of O2 onto 350° substrates. n = 2.4 App. Opt. 15, 2986 (1976)
Titanium Monoxide TiO 1750 4.93 -- -- -- ~1500 ebeam (Good) VC W, Mo Use gentle preheat to outgas. Films TiO2 if evaporated like TiO2; n = 2.2
Titanium Nitride TiN 2930 5.43 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- Mo Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Titanium Sesquioxide Ti2O3 2130 4.6 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- W Decomposes.
Tungsten W 3410 19.30 0.163 2117 2407 2757 eBeam (good), Thermal -- -- Forms violate oxides. Films hard & adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 2900 12.75 -- -- -- -- eBeam (Poor) -- -- --
Tungsten Carbide W2C 2860 17.15 -- 1480 1720 2120 eBeam (Xlnt) -- C --
Tungsten Telluride WTe3 -- 9.49 -- -- -- -- -- Quartz -- --
Tungsten Trioxide WO3 1473 7.16 -- -- -- 980 ebeam (Good) -- W, Pt Use gentle preheat to outgas. W reduces oxides slightly. n = 1.68
........sublimes........
Uranium U 1132 19.07 -- 1132 1327 1582 eBeam (Good) -- W, Mo Films oxidize.
Uranium Carbide UC2 2260 11.28 -- -- -- 2100 -- Carbon -- Decomposes.
Uranium Dioxide UO2 2176 10.9 -- -- -- -- -- -- W Ta causes decomposition.
Uranium Fluoride UF4 ~1000 -- -- -- -- 300 -- -- Ni --
Uranium Oxide U3O8 Decomposes 8.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- W Decomposes at 1300° C to UO2.
Uranium Phosphide UP2 -- 8.57 -- -- -- 1200 -- -- Ta Decomposes.
Uranium Sulphide U2S3 -- -- -- -- -- 1400 -- -- W Slight decomposition.
Vanadium V 1890 5.96 -- 1162 1332 1547 eBeam (Xlnt) -- W, Mo Wets Mo. EB evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium Boride VB2 2400 5.10 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Vanadium Carbide VC 2810 5.77 -- -- -- ~1800 -- -- -- --
Vanadium Dioxide VO2 1967 4.34 -- -- -- ~575 -- -- -- Deposit metal in 1 X 10-3O2 JVST A2(2) 301 (1984)
........sublimes........
Vanadium Nitride VN 2320 6.13 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Vanadium Pentoxide V2O5 690 3.36 -- -- -- ~500 -- Quartz -- --
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 1700 4.42 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Ytterbium Yb 824 6.98 -- 520 590 690 ebeam (Good) -- Ta --
........sublimes........
Ytterbium YbF3 1157 8.17 -- -- -- ~800 -- -- Mo n = 1.57 @3.8µ
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 2346 9.17 -- -- -- ~1500 -- -- Ir Loses Oxygen.
........sublimes........
Yttrium Y 1509 4.48 -- 830 973 1157 ebeam (Xlnt) Al2O3 W, Ta High Ta solubility
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 1990 -- -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- W Films not terroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 1387 4.01 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 2680 4.84 -- -- -- ~2000 ebeam (Good) C W Loses Oxygen. films smooth and clear. n = 1.79 @ 1µ
........sublimes........
Zinc Zn 419 7.14 0.514 127 177 250 eBeam (Xlnt), Thermal Al2O3, Quartz Mo, W, Ta Evaporates well under wide range of conditions.
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 546 6.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 394 4.22 -- -- -- ~300 -- C W Decomposes.
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 872 4.84 -- -- -- ~800 -- Quartz Pt, Ta --
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 -- 6.22 -- -- -- -- -- -- Mo Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide ZnO 1975 5.61 -- -- -- ~1800 ebeam (Fair) -- -- Anneal in air at 450° C to reoxidize; n = 2.0 JVST 12, 879 (1975)
Zinc Selenide ZnSe 1526 5.42 -- -- -- 660 -- Quartz Mo, W, Ta Use gentle preheat to outgas. Evaporates well n = 2.6.
Zinc Sulphide ZnS 1830 4.09 -- -- -- ~800 ebeam (Good) -- Ta, Mo Use gentle preheat to outgas. Films partially decompose. Sticking coefficient varies with substrate temperature. n = 2.3 @ .5µ
........sublimes........
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 1238 6.34 -- -- -- ~600 ebeam (Fair) -- Mo, Ta Use gentle preheat to outgas. n = 2.85 @ .5µ
Zircon ZrSiO4 2550 4.56 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Zirconium Zr 1852 6.40 -- 1477 1702 1987 eBeam (Xlnt) -- W Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 3040 6.08 -- -- -- -- ebeam (Good) -- -- --
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 3540 6.73 -- -- -- ~2500 -- -- -- --
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 2980 7.09 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Reactively evaporate in 10-3N2 atmosphere.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 2700 5.49 -- -- -- ~220 ebeam (Good) -- W Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard. n = 2.05 @.75µ
Zirconium Silicide ZrSi2 1700 4.88 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Element Symbol Melting
Point °C
Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
10-8 10-6 10-4
 

G = Graphite Crucible; CG = Coated Graphite Crucible; Al2O3 = Alumina Crucible; BN = Boron Nitride Crucible; Mo = Molybdenum Crucible; Ta = Tantalum Crucible; TB = TiB2; ZB = ZrB2; W = Tungsten; VC = vitreous carbon;